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Monday, February 1, 2010

The Soul in Buddhism_09

“What, Nagasena, is the characteristic mark of virtue (sila)?”
“Supporting, O king, for it is the basis of all good qualities: the five controlling faculties and the five moral powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, the eight factors of the noble path, the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of success, the four absorptions, the eight freedoms, the four modes of concentration and the eight great attainments.
Each of these has virtue as its support and in him who builds on it as the foundation all these good conditions will not decrease.”
“Give me an illustration.”
“Just, O king, as all forms of animal and plant life flourish with the earth as their support, so does the recluse, with virtue as the support, develop the five controlling faculties and so on. And this was said by the Blessed One:
“When a wise man, established well in virtue, Develops concentration and understanding, Then as a bhikkhu, ardent and sagacious, He succeeds in disentangling this tangle.”

### The five controlling faculties (also the five moral powers)
(1) Confidence
(2) energy
(3) mindfulness
(4) concentration and
(5) wisdom

### The seven factors of enlightenment
(1) Mindfulness
(2) investigation
(3) energy
(4) joy
(5) tranquility
(6) concentration and
(7) equanimity

### The eight factors of the noble path
(1) right view
(2) right thought
(3) right speech
(4) right action
(5) right livelihood
(6) right effort
(7) right mindfulness and
(8) right concentration

### The four foundations of mindfulness
(1) mindfulness of the body
(2) mindfulness of feelings
(3) mindfulness of thoughts and
(4) mindfulness of mind-objects

### The four right efforts
(1) Effort to prevent unwholesome states
(2) Effort to remove unwholesome states
(3) Effort to develop wholesome states and
(4) Effort to maintain wholesome states

### The four bases of success
(1) eagerness
(2) energy
(3) tenacity and
(4) wisdom

### The four modes of concentration
(1) meditations on love
(2) compassion
(3) sympathetic-joy and
(4) equanimity

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